- Variable Speed Drive
- Variable Frequency Drive
- Motor Failures
Speed adjustment techniques have been used in transmitting mechanical power to machinery since the earliest use of powered machinery. Before electric motors were invented, mechanical speed changers were used to control the mechanical power provided by water wheels and steam engines. When electric motors came into use, means of controlling their speed were developed almost immediately. Today, various types of mechanical drives, hydraulic drives and electric drives compete with one another in the industrial drives market.
Mechanical adjustable speed drives
There are two types of mechanical drives, variable pitch drives and traction drives.
Variable pitch drives are pulley and belt drives in which the pitch diameter of one or both pulleys can be adjusted.
Traction drives transmit power through metal rollers running against mating metal rollers. The input/output speed ratio is adjusted by moving the rollers to change the diameters of the contact path. Many different roller shapes and mechanical designs have been used.
Hydraulic adjustable speed drives
There are three types of hydraulic drives, those are : hydrostatic drives, hydrodynamic drives and hydroviscous drives.
A hydrostatic drive consists of a hydraulic pump and a hydraulic motor. Since positive displacement pumps and motors are used, one revolution of the pump or motor corresponds to a set volume of fluid flow that is determined by the displacement regardless of speed or torque. Speed is regulated by regulating the fluid flow with a valve or by changing the displacement of the pump or motor. Many different design variations have been used. A swash plate drive employs an axial piston pump and/or motor in which the swash plate angle can be changed to adjust the displacement and thus adjust the speed.
Hydrodynamic drives or fluid couplings use oil to transmit torque between an impeller on the constant-speed input shaft and a rotor on the adjustable-speed output shaft. The torque converter in the automatic transmission of a car is a hydrodynamic drive.
A hydroviscous drive consists of one or more discs or connected to the input shaft pressed against a similar disc or discs connected to the output shaft. Torque is transmitted from the input shaft to the output shaft through an oil film between the discs. The transmitted torque is proportional to the pressure exerted by a hydraulic cylinder that presses the discs together.
Continuously variable transmission (CVT)
Main article: Continuously variable transmission
Mechanical and hydraulic adjustable speed drives are usually called transmissions or continuously variable transmissions when they are used in vehicles, farm equipment and some other types of equipment.
Electric adjustable speed drives
There are three general categories of electric drives: DC motor drives, eddy current drives and AC motor drives. Each of these general types can be further divided into numerous variations. Electric drives generally include both an electric motor and a speed control unit or system. The term drive is often applied to the controller without the motor. In the early days of electric drive technology, electromechanical control systems were used. Later, electronic controllers were designed using various types of vacuum tubes. As suitable solid state electronic components became available, new controller designs incorporated the latest electronic technology.
DC drives are DC motor speed control systems. Since the speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to armature voltage and inversely proportional to field current, either armature voltage or field current can be used to control speed. Several types of DC motors are described in the electric motor article. The electric motor article also describes electronic speed controls used with various types of DC motors.
Eddy current drives
An eddy current drive consists of a fixed speed motor and an eddy current clutch. The clutch contains a fixed speed rotor and an adjustable speed rotor separated by a small air gap. A direct current in a field coil produces a magnetic field that determines the torque transmitted from the input rotor to the output rotor. The controller provides closed loop speed regulation by varying clutch current, only allowing the clutch to transmit enough torque to operate at the desired speed. Speed feedback is typically provided via an integral AC tachometer.
Eddy current drives are a type of slip controlled drive. Slip controlled drives are generally less efficient than other types of drives. The motor develops the torque required by the load and operates at full speed. The output shaft transmits the same torque to the load, but turns at a slower speed. Since power is proportional to torque multiplied by speed, the input power is proportional to motor speed times operating torque while the output power is output speed times operating torque. The difference between the motor speed and the output speed is called the slip speed. Power proportional to the slip speed times operating torque is dissipated as heat in the clutch.
AC drives are AC motor speed control systems.
Slip controlled drives control the speed of an induction motor by increasing a motor’s slip. This is accomplished by reducing the voltage applied to the motor or increasing the resistance of the rotor windings. Because they are generally less efficient than other types of drives, slip controlled drives have lost popularity and have recently been used only in special situations. See eddy current drives above.
Adjustable-frequency drives (AFD) control the speed of either an induction motor or a synchronous motor by adjusting the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. Adjustable frequency drives are also known as variable-frequency drives (VFD).
When changing the frequency of the power supplied to an AC motor, the ratio of the applied voltage to the applied frequency (V/Hz) is generally maintained at a constant value between the minimum and maximum operating frequencies. Operation at a constant voltage (reduced V/Hz) above a given frequency provides reduced torque capability and constant power capability above that frequency. The frequency or speed at which constant-voltage operation begins is called the base frequency or speed. Whether the applied voltage is regulated directly or indirectly, the V/Hz tends to follow the general pattern described for the performance described. The variable-frequency drive article provides additional information on electronic speed controls used with various types of AC motors.